Dandruff is a condition of the scalp that causes flakes of the skin to appear often accompanied by itching. It is a common condition but can be embarrassing and difficult to treat.

The exact cause of dandruff is unknown but is linked to various factors like:

Seborrheic Dermatitis: 

Patients with seborrheic dermatitis have oily irritated skin. The skin will be red, greasy and covered with yellow and white scales. It is associated with Malassezia fungus that normally lives on the scalp and feeds on the oils. In some patients, it becomes overactive causing the scalp skin to produce extra skin cells which causes dandruff. This can affect other areas of the skin like back of the ears, eye brows, eye lashes and the corners of the nose.
Dry Skin: 

This is a common cause of itchy flaky skin. Dry dandruff has smaller powdery scales.
Infrequent Hair washing and brushing/ combing can also cause dandruff.
Certain Skin conditions like psoriasis, eczema and tinea capitis can also cause dandruff.
Medical Conditions like parkinson’s disease and diseases of low immunity can also be more prone for dandruff.

Deficiency of zinc, vitamin B complex and some essential fatty acids may increase the risk. Mental Stress may be linked with dandruff.