A skin pigmentation disorder is a health condition that affects the color of the skin. The pigment melanin gives skin its color. It is made by specialized skin cells called melanocytes. When melanocytes become damaged or unable to produce adequate melanin, skin color can be affected. A lack of pigment can affect one small area of the body or the entire body, depending on the cause and progression of the disorder. Skin pigmentation disorders can be caused by any number of health issues. Some specific diseases that cause skin discoloration include melasma, albinism, and vitiligo.